Croatian Red Cross

History of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement

Henry Dunant - founder of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement

A Swiss businessman named Henry Dunant (8 May 1828, Geneva – 30 October 1910, Heiden), witnessed the sufferings, agony and death of the thousands of soldiers after the Battle of Solferino on 24th June 1859. After the battle between the Austrian and Franco-Sardinian armies, about 40,000 wounded, dying and dead soldiers remained on the battlefield. Existing medical units did not have enough personnel or material resources to help all. Dunant initiated a relief action and encouraged the local population to help all the wounded regardless of their side in the conflict. The following words rang out: "Siamo tutti fratelli" (We are all brothers).
Dunant described what he had witnessed in a book titled "A Memory of Solferino" that was published in 1862. In the book he stressed: the need for founding relief societies that would in time of peace train volunteers who would assist the medical services of armed forces in time of war; the protection of all wounded soldiers regardless of their side in conflict; and concluding international contracts that would regulate the work of the medical personnel and relief societies as well as respecting of their neutrality.
World Red Cross Red Crescent Day is marked on 8th May to honour Henry Dunant, the founder of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement.

 

Important years

1859 – Battle of Solferino

1863 (17th February in Geneva) the Committee of Five founded the International Committee for Aid to Wounded Soldiers that was in 1876 renamed to International Committee of the Red Cross

1863 – at the international conference in Geneva representatives of 16 governments and 4 private organizations adopted 10 resolutions, and thus founded the International Red Cross Movement (today the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement). States were encouraged to establish national relief societies (today National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies) and extend their patronage to them. It was also decided that members of relief societies shall wear as a uniform distinctive sign, a white armlet with a red cross. The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement was founded and exists by the will of states

1864 – I Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field 

1876 – some countries decided to use the emblem of the red crescent on the white background 

1901 – 1st Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to Henry Dunant, founder of the Movement

1917 - Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to the ICRC

1919 (5 May in Paris) – the League of Red Cross Societies was founded; in 1983 the name was changed to the League of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies; in 1919 the League was renamed to the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies

1928 – Statutes of the International Red Cross were adopted (revised and amended in 1952, 1986, 1995 and 2006)

1944 - Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to the ICRC

Geneva Conventions were revised and amended (between 1864 and 1949) and today we refer to the Four Geneva Conventions of 1949:
I – for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field 
II – for the Amelioration of the Condition of Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea 
III – relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War
IV – relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War

1963 - Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to the ICRC and International Federation

1965 – seven Fundamental Principles were adopted in their current form, and in 1986 they have been incorporated in the Statutes of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement (whose name was changed by the same Statutes)

In 1977 Additional Protocols to the Geneva Conventions of 1949 were adopted:
I – relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts 
II – relating to the Protection of Victims of Non-International Armed Conflicts 

2005 - Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 1949 relating to the Adoption of an Additional Distinctive Emblem (III Protocol)

2006 – International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent adopted the name red crystal for the third Protocol emblem


 


Address book

County Red Cross branch of Bjelovar-Bilogora


Address: V. Nazora 13/1
Postal code: 43 280
Director: Melita Lozina
Telephone: 043 531 156
Fax: 043 531 156
E-mail: ckgaresnica@gmail.com
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Ulica Crvenog križa 14, P.P.93 10 001 Zagreb


Tel: +385 1 4655 814 ili +385 1 4655 813
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